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The design included two tracks for trains and one lane of roadway. It was Canada’s worst bridge disaster. Tay Bridge (1879) Tom Martin's Tay Bridge Disaster. William Treggett Jr. was involved in the construction of the center span of the bridge. In 1949, the federal authorities decided to change the configuration of the decks by repurposing one of the rail lines for car traffic. Quebec Bridge has a long story behind it, a bridge that was proposed first back in 1852 but it was not complete until 1919. For these men and for their rescuers, the situation became more frantic as the tide came in. The Quebec Bridge structure plunged over 150 feet taking with it the lives of 75 workers. By Aug. 27, the misalignment of one of the lower chords became very noticeable. As the huge center span was being lifted into place, it … At least 75 of the 86 workmen on the site were carried to their deaths and property damage was later estimated at over $1.5 million. “A cry of anguish went up from the onlookers as the span rushed to its watery bed,” noted an article in one Toronto newspaper. It was, and still is, the longest clear span cantilever bridge in the world, measuring 549 metres between its main pillars. The collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. December 15, 1967. On October 2, 1900, the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, placed the cornerstone of the Québec Bridge. About second collapse of the bridge After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse, construction started on a second bridge, but September 11, 1916, when the central span was being raised into position, it fell into the river, killing 13 workers. However, at 5:37 p.m., Aug. 29, 1907, around the same time that the Phoenixville meeting was ending, the Quebec Bridge suddenly collapsed. A few years later, on August 29, 1907, the south section of the bridge collapsed and killed 76 workers, including 33 Mohawk workers from the Kahnawake community. This led to the use of nickel alloy steel to decrease the risk of fracturing. yeah, where's the second collapse info? The bridge, which was conceived to be one of the most advanced in the world, had already collapsed nine years earlier. The southwest corner of the span tore away and sagged. Due to lack of funds, no work took place until 1900 when the company received financial assistance from the federal, provincial and municipal governments. Elsewhere, about a dozen men who survived the fall were trapped alive in the mangled debris on the foreshore, which at that time of day was relatively dry. By then, the south anchor arm, the tower and two panels of the south cantilever arm were ready and six sections of anchor arm were in place. Quebec Fires, 1845-1876. At that point he thought he was going to die. The bridge was finally completed in 1917. In 1916, when the great bridge was nearing completion, tragedy struck again. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design.” The commission attributed this to “errors of judgement” on the part of Peter L. Szlapka, the designing engineer, and Theodore Cooper, the consulting engineer. Cooper decided to forge ahead and not introduce any changes. A few years later, on August 29, 1907, the south section of the bridge collapsed and killed 76 workers, including 33 Mohawk workers from the Kahnawake community. On September 20, 1917, the construction and installation of a new span were successfully completed connecting the two sides of the St. Lawrence River and the first locomotive crossed over the river to the south shore with two passenger cars carrying 400 passengers on October 17, 1917. Hall’s traveller was located at the end of the south cantilever arm. SECOND COLLAPSE OF THE BRIDGE On 11 September 1916 Quebec bridge again collapse in to the river killing 13 men. McLure will be over at five o’clock.” Cooper believed that the same message would be forwarded from Phoenixville to Quebec City, but this never happened. The Royal Commission, which investigated the cause of the disaster, concluded that “the collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. The bridge finally was completed and opened for traffic in August of 1918. At last, the world’s longest cantilever bridge was completed and the first train crossed it in October. The anchorage arm and the north-south cantilever were built between 1913 and 1916. After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse, construction started on a second bridge. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design.” Travellers were used to carry heavy loads to specific jobs on the bridge. Legion Magazine engages Canadians in commemorating the effort, bravery and sacrifice of those who served and continue to serve in Canada’s military. Nothing came over on me.” Amazingly, when Lajeunesse landed he was not even dislodged from the girder he was standing on. In June 1907, McLure told Cooper that errors of alignment in some of the lower chord splices on the bridge’s south anchor arm were corrected by jacking them into line. The bridge was completed in 1917 and the Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII) officially opened it on 22 August 1919. The rail bridge was designed to link the two shores and provide easier transit for the 11 railroad companies in particular between the railways in Québec and the United States. bridge at Quebec City. Except for the piers, nothing from the previous structure was recoverable. It was a slow process, but eventually the span was manoeuvred into position between the cantilever arms where huge lifting hangers, attached to the ends of the arms, raised it by hydraulic means off the scows. 21 Feb.2003 The Quebec Bridge (Canada) was built in 18 years. Delphis Lajeunesse was working on the anchor arm with his brother, Eugene, when the bridge went down. CHANGES OF THE PLAN Before construction was to begin, Cooper lengthened the span from 1600 ft to 1800 ft. At the time, this honour had been awarded to only four other civil engineering works worldwide. As before, the design called for a cantilever-type bridge, but it differed from the previous one with the lower chords of the cantilever arms several times stronger. The devel-opment of a cantilever design, which seemed the only solu-tion at the time, is described. The Oct. 19, 1916, report by the board of engineers stated that the St. Lawrence Bridge Company “advised your board that they assume entire responsibility for the failure” of the casting in the erection equipment and the “resulting loss of the span.” The report went on to note that the company had taken immediate steps to replace the span. But despite these and other irregularities, the Phoenix Bridge Company did not halt construction. In 1907 the incomplete structure collapsed into the river with a loss of 75 lives. Only 16 bodies were recovered from the twisted wreckage at the bottom of the river. The new design was again for a bridge with a single long cantilever span, but a much more massive one. This animation only illustrates the construction of the second bridge that started in 1911, 4 years after the collapse of the first bridge. A grave error was made in assuming the dead load for the calculations at too low a value … Québec, 11 September 1916 - The world’s largest cantilever suspension bridge collapsed with the loss of more than 25 lives yesterday. The Royal Commission, which investigated the cause of the disaster, concluded that “the collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. Construction continued because it was thought that the increase in stresses would be safe. In 1903, the Government of Canada vigorously promoted the bridge project because it wanted to see the establishment of the National Transcontinental Railway from Moncton to Winnipeg. In August, McLure telegraphed New York because splices between some of the lower chords in the south anchor arm were bent. The Quebec Bridge Company then let a contract to the Phoenix Bridge Company of Phoenixville, Pa., to build the structure. The thunderous roar of the collapse was heard ten km (six miles) away in Quebec (p.80, Middleton, 2001). The businessmen formed the Quebec Bridge Company and obtained a charter of incorporation to erect a bridge over the river, a few miles upstream from the historic city near the mouth of the Chaudiere River. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge, and Ralph Modjeskifrom Chicago. The span was carried on scows that were guided by tugs. “I thought I would never come to the surface again. It was also decided that the structure would have a cantilever attached to piers on each side of the river by anchor arms of 500 feet each and linked together by a centre span initially projected at 1,600 feet. There are three postcards, both black-and-white and color, of the Quebec Bridge. The central span also collapsed while being put in place in 1916. Vautelet, with carrying out necessary changes to the bridge’s basic design. What caused the Quebec Bridge collapses of 1907 and 1916? “Women shrieked, men stood dumbfounded, while those directly interested in the building of the bridge could scarcely hold back the tears which welled in their eyes. It is the longest cantilever bridge in the world. On the morning of Sept. 11, the workmen faced a difficult task in moving the span upstream, but all went well with that part of the job. They had pride in their work and on the day when their desire was to be achieved, fate intervened…. Editor’s note: The text on the plaque erected by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada states that 76 lives were lost during the 1907 bridge collapse, other official sources, including the Canadian Encyclopedia, state 75 workmen died in the disaster. I fell down in my box, stood up, fell down again, and I looked again. Almost 12 years to the day after the tragic collapse, the Prince of Wales opened the … In this report I will emphasize on the first collapse. On October 2, 1900, the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, placed the cornerstone of the Quebec Bridge. Then it disappeared. Hall fell into deep, icy-cold water where he spent a few anxious minutes before being picked up by a makeshift rescue boat. Only eleven workers on the span survived. Home » Canada Corner » O Canada » A Bridge With Two Tragedies. During the period listed in the previous question, the bridge builders at Quebec were attempting to span what body of water? To this day, the collapsed central span rests at the bottom of the river. 1916: Second Quebec Bridge Collapse Engineering disaster Quebec City, Quebec Central Canada 1917–1966. In spite of the enormity of the accident, the federal government decided the project must be completed to establish the rail link for the railway system. The bridge construction was restarted in 1913 and completed in August 1919. But the collapse of the bridge led to the tradition of the Iron Ring to symbolize the humility and fallibility of engineers. Eighty-six workers were present on the bridge at the time. The bridge collapsed during construction on August 29, 1907, killing 75 workers. The design included two tracks for trains and one lane of roa… Newport Point, QB Fatal House Fire, Mar 1923. During this time, there were two accidents (1907, 1916). Quebec (1907 and 1916) A Bridge with Two Tragedies. The 5,100-ton span had been built and was sitting in Sillery Cove, approximately 3 1/2 miles from the bridge site. Off Seven Islands, QB Steamer ST. OLAF Sinks In St. Lawrence River, Nov 1900 ... Quebec City, QC Bridge Collapse, Sept 1916. A … He also modified specifications that would allow for higher “Well,” he said, “I could feel it start to go down and it was going down fast you got tears in your eyes, and you could hardly realize anything beside you. When the Quebec Bridge collapsed in September 1916, a horrific sense of déjà vu was felt throughout the city. To meet the growing traffic between the shores, a third roadway was added in 1993. On September 11, 1916, when the central span wa… He endorsed the Phoenix design as the “best and the cheapest” of those submitted, although he decided to lengthen the centre span from 1,600 to 1,800 feet. Th… A few seconds later, the other ends pulled off their supports and the whole span came loose and disappeared into the river. The investigation by the board of engineers determined that the span did not buckle as Larocque and others claimed. On May 23, 1987, the Québec Bridge was designated a Historical Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers to highlight the technical challenge of its construction at the beginning of the century. The inquiry, which concluded with a report published in 1908, also heard from the Lajeunesse brothers who were among the few who had landed near the foreshore. In the space of just 15 seconds, the south anchor arm, the cantilever arm and the partially completed suspended span fell some 150 feet into the St. Lawrence River. “One might think in the wake of this second tragedy that the engineers and contractors might have wavered in their determination to proceed with the project, but they did not. The dead included 33 Mohawk steel workers from the Caughnawaga reserve at Lachine, Que., near Montreal. In 1919, the Prince of Wales officially opened the Quebec Bridge and unveiled plaques in honour of the engineers who had designed and built the magnificent structure. No other part of the bridge was damaged. Spanning the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City, the massive Quebec Bridge has a history of triumph and tragedy. On January 24, 1996, the Government of Canada designated the Québec Bridge a National Historic Site, recognizing it as the most important bridge in the history of Canadian civil engineering. He had been standing on a platform known as a “traveller”. They had lived with this span. After four successful lifts on the north end and five lifts on the south end, the workmen–about 80 in all–took a break. Lajeunesse was thrown down on a girder, but managed to get to his feet. ENG 3000 York University Ali Dianat, Armin Ghaemi, Amir-Hossein Khademi, Sean O'Brien, Kevin Suarez “Make as good work of it as you can,” came Cooper’s reply. Acting on Hoare’s advice, McLure went to New York City to brief Cooper first hand about the difficulties. à The Collapse of September 11, 1916 ... Holtz, Neal. A new bridge was designed. The entire south half of the bridge, approximately 189 MN (19,000 tons) of steel, fell into the waters of the St. Lawrence within 15 seconds. In fact, the wrecked structure was in such poor condition that it was unrecognizable to the men who had been very familiar with it for nearly two years. A few years later, on August 29, 1907, the south section of the bridge collapsed and killed 76 workers, including 33 Mohawk workers from the Kahnawake community. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge , and Ralph Modjeski from Chicago. It was as if they had lost a great friend. The ill-starred bridge suffered a second disaster on 11 September 1916 when a new centre span being hoisted into position fell into the river, killing 13 men. An Engineer's Aspect: The Bridge Collapse of August 29, 1907. Murdochville QB Bridge Collapse, May 1963. “There was a noise like the snapping of steel. The newspaper articles detail the 1916 construction accident on the second Quebec bridge; one 1917 article about the bridge; and one 1986 article about the 1907 collapse of the first bridge. Noyan, QB House Fire, Dec 1960. Fortunately no lives were lost at this time. On September 11, 1916, the central span built in a cove at the bottom of Mount Hermon Cemetery fell into the river as it was being hoisted. You will not receive a reply. The centre span seemed to buckle in the middle and roll over, twisting the great steel girders. Besides being a transportation link for trains, the bridge would serve as a crossing point for vehicles and pedestrians. The rail bridge was designed to link the two shores and provide easier transit for the 11 railroad companies in particular between the railways in Québec and the United States. 11 September 1916 Quebec Bridge Collapse After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse, construction started on a second bridge. Two months later it was opened to regular trains, vehicle and pedestrian traffic. It would be well to draw attention to as much care as possible in future work to get the best results in matching all the members before the full strains are brought upon them.”. I thought the traveller had fallen down on the bridge. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge, and Ralph … After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse, construction started on a second bridge. In this paper, issues surrounding construction of a bridge at Quebec City are explained thoroughly. Bridging The St Lawrence Wonders Of World Ering. ... Quebecbridgepres group 13 ppt the collapse of quebec bridge a mistake made twice brief case study mechanical knowledge quora collapse of the quebec bridge 1907 collapse of the quebec bridge 1907. Over 35,000 vehicles, including 270 transit buses, and approximately 8 VIA passenger trains and 5 CN freight trains cross the Québec Bridge every day. I came to this side of the bridge and I looked, and when I saw the bridge go down in that way I was on that chord, and I thought that chord made the bridge fall.”. Seventy-eight years later, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada unveiled a new plaque that commemorates this “remarkable engineering achievement,” but the wording on the plaque pays only scant attention to the workmen who died during its construction. Remarkably, Cooper, who claimed he was not in good health, worked out of his New York City office and did not make visits to the site during the erection of the superstructure. This bridge would need to be long and high in order to accommodate ocean ships bound for Montreal. He also described how he saw his brother emerge from the wreckage, bleeding but not seriously injured. Quebec City, QC Bridge Collapse, Sept 1916. After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse [of the Quebec Bridge in August 1907 ], construction started on a second bridge. The collapse of the first There was no mention, however, of the men who died when the bridge collapsed. A large number of people witnessed the accident from shore and their reaction was one of disbelief. This feature was conceived by Phelps Johnson, president and general manager of St. Lawrence Bridge Company. By 1916, the bridge was nearly completed. During the federal inquiry into the disaster, Hall was asked whether he knew something was wrong with the bridge just by the feel and not by the sight of it. Pre-Centennial Period Date Disaster Type Location Region Notes Ref(s) 1917 December 6: Halifax Explosion: Wartime explosion Halifax, Nova Scotia Maritimes World War I In 1929, a roadway was added to the two rail lines to accommodate the needs of residents in the Québec city area, and it operated as a toll bridge for cars from 1929 to 1942. Search for related information by keyword. Ottawa’s Heron Road Bridge also collapsed during construction, on 10 August 1966. On October 2, 1900, the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, placed the cornerstone of the Québec Bridge. Legion Magazine is published by Canvet Publications Ltd. © 2020 Legion Magazine. Most of these men, along with several other workers–about 55 in all–were working on the cantilever arm at the time of the collapse. For years, the bridge has been viewed as an engineering marvel, but few people know the full story behind its construction and the two disasters that claimed the lives of 89 workers. For enquiries, contact us. Further, after talking to McLure, Cooper assumed that work on the bridge had stopped, but this was not the case. The bridge is both an architectural gem and a national historical site. Completed in 1917 at a cost of more than $22 million, it is the longest cantilever bridge in the world, stretching more than 1,800 feet between its main piers. As the water level rose, the trapped men drowned. From the ruins of this first attempt emerged still another plan. The bridge initially collapsed on August 29, 1907. The Quebec Bridge (Pont de Québec in French) is a road, rail and pedestrian bridge across the lower Saint Lawrence River between Sainte-Foy (since 2002 a western suburb of Quebec City) and Lévis, Quebec, Canada. The rescuers had less than an hour to save the men, and while they tried very hard to get the men out, they lacked the equipment. In just one week, chord 9-L went out of line from three quarters of an inch to two and one quarter inches. Vautelet was President and Chief Engineer. One important innovation that added strength to the bridge was the K-truss design. During its construction, the bridge collapsed twice, killing 89 people. Quebec Bridge Collapsed For The 2nd Time On September 11 1916 Scientific Diagram. Over 100,000 people gathered in Quebec City to celebrate the big day. Submitted by gendisasters. The traveller was in the same place. The span was to be lifted two feet at a time in a repeat operation until it was in place between the two arms. On September 11, 1916, the bridge tragically collapsed for the last time killing 13 workers and injuring more than 14 others. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design. On Sept. 20, 1917, the suspended span was lifted into position and fastened to the cantilever arms. on the wiki sept. 11th page it refers to 1916 - The Quebec Bridge collapses for a second time, killing 11 men. In 1916, a redesigned 5,000-ton center span was jacked into place from barges, but as thousands of spectators watched, it too crashed into the river when a jack bearing failed. Then, on September 11 th, 1916, the time came to raise the central span that had been constructed in Sillery Cove, which was intended to join the two cantilever arms and finish the building of the bridge. There was a roaring, grinding sound when it collapsed. The commission found that “a grave error was made in assuming the dead load for the calculations at too low a value and not afterwards revising this assumption. Tacoma Narrows Bridge (1940) Lessons from the Failure of a Great Machine Rather, the loss resulted from the failure of a casting in the erection equipment that temporarily supported the southwest corner of the span. Today, the bridge continues to allow passengers and goods to move freely between the two shores and the rest of North America. Much of this debris had to be cleared away before work could start on a new bridge. A masterpeice of engineering, a historic structure and a strategic asset. Thirteen men were carried to their deaths and several others were injured. Contrary to popular belief the first rings were not made from iron from the collapsed bridge. He relied on Edward Hoare, the chief engineer, and Norman McLure, the inspecting engineer for the Quebec Bridge Company, to keep him informed and to consult with him whenever a problem arose. On August 17, 1908, the Minister of Railways and Canals tasked 3 engineers, including the Canadian H.E. The new design was again for a bridge with a single long cantilever span, but a much more massive one. The Phoenix Bridge Company’s design called for a cantilever bridge of 150 feet in height above the high water mark. Quebec, QB St. Charles Orphanage Fire Disaster, Dec 1927. The Quebec Bridge was 20 years in the making, from the found­ ing of the Quebec Bridge Company in 1887 to the bridge’s col­ lapse in 1907. The centre span collapsed while being hoisted into place, killing 10 more people. The story of the bridge begins in 1887 when a number of entrepreneurs from Quebec City decided there was a need to increase business traffic in the area. Later that same day, McLure met with Phoenixville Bridge Company officials in Phoenixville and after some discussion it was decided that they would reconvene the following day. When I did, I found two pieces of wood wedged in tightly at the elbow joint of both my arms. Disturbed by this report, Cooper asked for further details on how they became bent. So in 1908, the minister of railways and canals appointed a board of engineers that arranged for and supervised the design and erection of a new bridge. In April 1911, the board of engineers awarded a contract to the St. Lawrence Bridge Company of Montreal. My partner was just about seven or eight feet from me, and I never noticed him and never saw him–never knew anything.”. The Quebec Bridge Company selected Theodore Cooper, a well-known American bridge designer, as the project’s consulting engineer. After their meeting on the morning of the Aug. 29, 1907, Cooper telegraphed the contracting company in Phoenixville as follows: “Add no more load to the bridge till after due consideration of the facts. In 1913, construction began, and the central span was built in Sillery Cove from May to July 1916. Before the parts for the bridge’s superstructure were manufactured, company designing engineer Peter L. Szlapka estimated the weight of the completed work. Quebec Bridge Disaster -- 11 September 1916. Preliminary calculations weren't checked, and the bridge was too heavy to support itself. Legion Magazine is published six times a year in English with a French insert. Dee Bridge (1847) An Engineer's Aspect: The Dee Railway Bridge Disaster of 1847. “I thought, well, I am finished, but I stood there. The choice seemed ideal because when it came to professional construction designers, Cooper had few equals on the continent. The project failed twice, at the cost of 88 lives, and took over 30 years to complete. Nearly all the victims were killed by falling debris or drowned. Vautelet was President and Chief Engineer. “It is not serious. It collapsed two times in this duration once in 1907 killing 75 workers and second time in 1916 killing 13 workers. Ingwall Hall, one of the few survivors, lost two fingers in the accident. 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